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Kibara.~\                              FLORA INDICA.                                    165
not require us to look to Laurinete for the allies of these plants, as they are pre-
sent also in Berberidea.
The divarication of the cotyledons is a curious character, the physiological import
of which it is not easy to determine. It is of frequent but by no means universal
occurrence in the great class of plants to which we have referred MoalmiacM.
Among Ranunculacea it occurs in some species of Glemai^ as was first indicated
by De Caadolle. Among Mctgnoli$cea also it is common, and it occurs in all My-
risticacea, and in the whole of the first tribe of Menispermacea. In Hortonia. and
Hedycarya the embryo is included within the albumen, a portion of which penetrates
between the divaricating cotyledons. lu Hortonia the central albumen is very dis-
tinct from that near the surface, being paler in colour as well as laxer in texture;
and a longitudinal, section of the seed shows that the line of demarcation between the
two is continuous with the apex of the cotyledons, and that the exterior albumen is
perisperm, while that Between the cotyledons, and continuous thence almost to the
base of the seed, is perisperm. Evident traces of the embryo-sac may be seen cover-
ing the embryo, which occupies a small cavity in the perisperm. It is, however,
evanescent below.
In IBoldoa the embryo is figured by Lindley as being altogether exterior to the
albumen; but we find the structure even more anomalous than he describes it, al-
though his analysis of the seed of that curious plant is, as might be expected, quite
accurate. Dr. Liudley describes a thick fleshy testa and spreading cotyledons resting
on the albumen. "We find a thin brown coat, not readily separable from the albumen,
and traversed by 'a broad rhaphe, which terminates in a thickened large circular
chalaza like that of jlortonia. Within this coat there is a fleshy layer of consider-
able thickness, and the ovate widely-divaricating cotyledons rest upon another fleshy
mass, which is everywhere readily separable from the outer, except sometimes at the
base, and is undoubtedly albumen, and no doubt endosperm, that is to say, developed
in the embryo-sac. It will be seen that this structure only differs from that of jEfor-
tonia by the larger size and greater divarication of the cotyledons, and by the in-
creased mass and more complete separation of the inner albumen from the outer
fleshy layer. We think that the same explanation will apply to both genera, aafl
that'the fleshy coat of 'BoJdoa is perisperm. That it cannot be testa, as LindJcy
supposes, is, we think, proved by the position of the chalaza exterior to it.
The nearest allies of. Monimiacea in tie class to which we propose to refw them
are, we think, .ScMstandracece. We are led to this conclusion by the principle ]o7g
 ago laid down by M>. Brown, that the most perfect species of e jgroup ought ta be
kept in view in determining the affinities of the whole. lit the present family, Hor-
tonia, which is hermaphrodite and petaliferous, appears to claim %r highest place,
and the resemblance of its flower-buds to those of KacUnfa.  J&ieium must strike
every one. The ovaries and style are also very like those "f Kadsura, while the
oily albumen and the embryo are quite Magnoliaqeous. At the same time Moni*
miacea form undoubtedly a very distinct' family i)ot closely allied to any other, but
presenting evident relations to. till the Orders' Of the class. It is worthy of note that
Dr. Wight, in founding the gfenus Uortott^ referred it to ScMsandraceat an Order
with which he was only acquainted by means ef books,
Jfonimi&cea are a very small Order, -and are, almost entirely confined to the
southern hemisphere, our Indian species and a few which inhabit Mexico and Pa-'
, nama being the only'exceptions* Tropical South America is the great centre of- the
Order, whence it extends south through Peru to Chili. In Africa several are natives
of Madagascar and the islands f Mauritius and Bourbon, but none have yet been
obtained from the continent Australia and New Zealand also contain a few species.
1. KIBARA, Endlicher.
JJfcO&gmarUa, Blame, non Kunth,- Sciadicarpua, ffaw&arl.
Floret (Mines.    Calyx Wbiuatus, basi bibracteolatus, ore squamis